Online Resources GLOSSARY
Bahareque is a system used for constructing houses. The technique has been used since early times and consists of woven sticks with cane, wattle and mud.
Biofules are renewable fuels of biological origin derived from sugar, wheat, corn, or oilseed organic debris.
Biodiversity is the variety of living beings that inhabit the planet: microorganisms, fungi, animals, plants and human beings. It also comprises the diversity of species, genetics, and ecosystems.
Beverage made by the infusion of roasted and grounded seeds of coffee plants.
The coffee cherry is the ripe coffee fruit. It is composed by two beans wrapped by the skin.
Liquid coffee concentrate used as a raw material for beverages, essences, sweets, liqueurs, and bakery.
Coffee growing is an agricultural activity focused on growing and producing coffee.
Coffee plantations are areas planted with coffee trees.
Coffee Tree Zoca
Coffee tree zoca is a crop renovation method in which the coffee tree is cut at an approximate height of 30 cm above the floor. One, two, or three of the buds are chosen in order to increase density without exceeding the optimum number of plants for each production system.
A cultural landscape is the result of a natural and cultural historic interaction process between a community and a particular environment. It reflects the influence of human action on natural factors.
Demucilage is the detachment of the pulped bean´s mucilage or slime.
Dry Parchment Coffee
Dry parchment coffee results of the wet milling process. After removing the skin and mucilage and washing and drying it, a moisture content of 12% must be reached.
Ecological Wet Milling or Belcolsub
Operations performed to transform cherry coffee into dry parchment coffee while preserving coffee quality, meeting commercialization standards, avoiding coffee losses, eliminating unnecessary processes, using the bean´s byproducts, generating the highest possible income to coffee growers, and minimizing environmental pollution.
Fair trade is an initiative that seeks to ensure small coffee growers (and other agricultural producers) receive the minimum or higher prices paid in the market in order to improve their welfare.
Fertilization is the adequate nutrition of crops in order to obtain the highest possible yields, high quality, and preserve the general state of the plantation.
Fungicides are products or agents that constrain fungi.
Freeze-dried coffee is instant coffee. The freeze-dried process is ideal for preserving the coffee´s balance, flavor and aroma attributes. After freezing the coffee´s liquid extract and introducing it into a vacuum chamber, water is separated through sublimation. Water is removed by passing from a solid state to a gas state without going through a liquid state.
Geographical Indication is a geographic name used to identify products that come from a specific area and whose quality is directly related to their origin. Denominations of Origin are also Geographical Indications.
Instant coffee is the powder or granules left after water has been removed from the coffee extract. Since it is less vulnerable to oxidation, instant coffee is stable and can preserve its quality for months, and in some cases, for years.
Intercrops are mingled crops in the same area which are managed independently.
A management plan is a document that determines how to act upon a territory according to its environmental, social, cultural and productive possibilities. It establishes the actions needed to prevent, mitigate, monitor, compensate and correct the negative impact of a project or activity, as well as to take advantage of its positive effects.
Mild Arabica coffee
Mild Arabica coffee is 100% harvested by using intensive traditional labor processes. Generally it is produced in mountainous topographies and soils of volcanic origin.
Mild coffee has a uniform and bright color. Its organoleptic characteristics reflect the natural and human factors that are part of its production process. The environment, average temperatures, reduced variation of the areas where it is produced, and picking and post-harvest processes generate a cup quality that distinguishes mild coffee from other Arabica coffees and other species.
Mild coffees are Arabica coffees characterized for their mildness (pronounced acidity and aroma and moderate bitterness). The main varieties grown in Colombia are: Typica, Bourbon, Maragogipe, Tabi, Caturra, and Castillo.
The mucilage is a hyaline, colorless and somewhat turgid substance that coats the coffee fruit once it has been pulped. It accounts for 22% of the cherry´s total weight and is botanically denominated the “mesocarpo”. Optimal drying and coffee preservation is achieved if the mucilage is removed.
National Coffee Fund
The National Coffee Fund is a “parafiscal account” whose contributions are made exclusively by Colombian coffee growers. As the legitimate representative of Colombian growers, the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation manages the fund´s resources. The resources must be used for benefiting coffee growers.
Origin coffees count with unique qualities because they are produced in specific regions or farms. Customers prefer origin coffee because of its flavor and aroma attributes. There are three sub-categories: regional, exotic, and farm.
Organic coffee is grown without using synthetic chemical products such as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers. Such products are replaced by organic fertilizers often produced by coffee growing farms.
Coffee byproduct obtained from the threshing process either by machine or by hand.
Soil characteristics related to color, texture, structure, porosity, permeability, drainage, and effective depth.
Plagues are all plant or animal species, strains, biotypes or pathogenic agents injurious to plants and plant products.
Biological, cultural, legal, mechanic, natural and chemical procedures are used to control coffee pests. Coffee berry borer appeared in Colombian plantations in 1988 and has ever since been the most economically harmful plague. It has been controlled with an integrated approach which aims to produce Federation type coffee in presence of the insect.
Post-harvest processing are the steps or stages to which coffee is subjected in order to remove its layers efficiently without affecting quality or performance.
Milling and drying processes which are developed once the coffee cherries have been harvested.
A productive infrastructure is the provision of the infrastructure needed for coffee production: germinators, seedbeds, mills, and dryers.
Studies from Cenicafé prove that coffee can be pulped without using water causing no harm to the capacity of the process or the quality of the beans. This practice diminishes the pollution that results of the process by 72%.
The pulp is the coffee bean´s skin. It is formed by the exocarp (epidermis) and part of the mesocarp. The pulp is a byproduct of the ecological wet milling process which is decomposed and kept for further use.}
Green coffee beans are transformed to roasted coffee through heat. This process generates several physical changes and chemical reactions that enhance the aroma and flavor of the drink.
Robusta coffee is a variety of the Coffea canephora species which is resistant to several diseases including coffee leaf rust. It is strong, bitter and has a high caffeine concentration. Robusta coffee is usually grown in altitudes below 1.000 m in countries such as Brazil, Indonesia and Uganda.
Seedbeds are the place where the “chapolas” from the sprouters are grown. Seedlings are planted in bags, grouped, and partially exposed to sunlight until they are prepared to be transplanted to the field. Seedbeds protect plants during their most vulnerable phase and help to ensure an optimal “colino” is selected.
The weeding systems traditionally used by coffee growers in Colombia´s hillsides have intended to cleanse the areas. Tools including the hoe, the “gala”, the “gambia”, the “machete”, the scythe and pesticides have been used in order to do so.
The level of shade for coffee plantations must be established according to weather conditions, soil type, and slope. Shades reduce soil´s environmental temperature and evaporation and increase relative humidity. Since shade plantations have low light intensity and low leaf temperature, they provide the ideal conditions for efficient photosynthesis and growth. Night and day temperatures are higher and lower respectively than that of coffee plantations with direct sunlight.
Besides the fact that they increase the welfare of producers, consumers are willing to pay higher prices for specialty coffees because of their consistent, verifiable and sustainable attributes. These characteristics result from coffee origin (origin category), production in harmony with the environment (sustainable category), and commitment to the social development of coffee growing communities (social category).
The sprouter is the place where coffee plants begin to grow. The substrate for the sprouter can be washed river sand or disinfested soil. After two months, coffee trees are transplanted to seedbeds and begin to be called “chapolas”.
Sustainable coffees are grown by communities that are committed to protecting their environment by having a clean production and preserving biodiversity. They promote the social development of the coffee growing families who produce them.
Technologically Advanced Plantations
Technologically advanced plantations are those with a density higher or equal to 2.500 trees of Caturra and Castillo varieties. They are nine years or younger in the sun and twelve years or younger in the shade or semi-shade.
Traceability is a set of technical actions, measures, and procedures that identify and register each product from its source to the end of the commercialization chain.
Producers receive an integral and articulated accompaniment in each and every one of their processes through technical assistance.
Threshing is the process which extracts the endocarp from the dry parchment coffee by using specialized machines. Dry parchment coffee is then turned into green coffee and classified according to size and quality.
The hallmark of Colombian coffee is the wet treatment of coffee beans which results in the renowned washed Colombian coffee. The dry treatment is a system that produces coffees with different features.
Through wet milling processes, which are characterized for using water, coffee beans are pulped, demucilaged or fermented, washed, and dried. Mild, fine, or washed coffees are obtained through this process.
Weed plants coexist or compete for water, nutrients, CO2, O2, and space with other crops. They are economically deleterious to the production system.
Weed management is based on using coverages that allow the conservation of floor resources. Coverages protect soils from the impact of raindrops, which are the main cause of erodibility in Colombia´s coffee growing soils.